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通过CompletableFuture并行执行一些线程,并串行执行一些线程 – java程序员分享

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我需要执行一些任务。有些任务是独立的,有些则依赖于其他任务的成功执行。可以并行运行独立任务以提高性能。我称这些任务为服务。
link列告诉您哪些服务将串行执行,哪些将并行执行。 order列描述了一组定义的服务将遵循的执行顺序。对于下面的示例,服务A和B应该并行运行。如果它们已成功执行,则服务C将执行。请注意,服务C并不直接依赖于其先前服务的输出,而是必须在成功执行其先前服务之后运行,因为服务C在执行期间会需要其先前服务产生的一些数据。成功执行服务C后,将执行下一个服务D,依此类推,直到该列表中的所有服务都被消耗为止。

Tasks       service     link      order Service A   01          03        1 Service B   02          03        2 Service C   03          04        3 Service D   04          05        4 Service E   05          07        5 Service F   06          07        6 Service G   07          (null)    7 

以下是我的代码。

    public void executeTransactionFlow(DataVo dataVo) throws Exception {      List<Callable<Boolean>> threadList = new ArrayList<>();     List<String> serviceIds = new ArrayList<>();     List<Future<Boolean>> futureList;     String validatedRespCode = null, joinTo, prevJoinTo = null, serviceId;      // Iterating through service flows map     for (Map<String, String> map : serviceFlowsMap) {         joinTo = map.get("link");         serviceId = map.get("service");          // A simple flag to differentiate which services should execute parallel and which in serial.         if (null == prevJoinTo) {             prevJoinTo = joinTo;         }          // Check for join condition. If join condition is same as previous then do not execute the thread list yet add current service in list         if (null != joinTo && joinTo.equals(prevJoinTo)) {             threadList.add(new Callable<String, DataVo>(serviceId, dataVo));         }          /*          * 1. Run the threads in the list          * 2. Empty the thread list          * 3. Empty serviceIds list          * 4. Set prevJoinTo          */         else {             if (threadList.size() > 0) {                 prevJoinTo = joinTo;                  try {                      // If list contain only 1 service then call, otherwise invokeAll                     futureList = MyExecutor.executeServices(threadList, dataVo);                      // During execution we cannot interrupt services, so we check here after they get back to here and interrupt if it has been timedout.                     if (dataVo.isTimedout()) {                         throw new Exception("Transaction thread is Interrupted or Timed-out");                     }                      // Validate service response codes and get decision in case of any failure                     validatedRespCode = validateResponseOfExecutedServices(dataVo, futureList, serviceIds);                      // If validationRespCode is non 00 then do not process further                     if (null != validatedRespCode && !"200".equals(validatedRespCode)) {                         break;                     }                 }                 catch (Exception e) {                     throw new Exception(e.getMessage(), e);                 }                 finally {                     // clear thread list and serviceIds list. It will be populated for next parallel set of threads                     threadList.clear();                     serviceIds.clear();                 }             }              // Start preparing new thread list             // Adding current service_id into threadList after executing previous services in parallel.             threadList.add(new Callable<String, DataVo>(serviceId, dataVo));         }     }      // Run remaining services     if (!threadList.isEmpty()) {          try {             futureList = MyExecutor.executeServices(threadList, dataVo);             validatedRespCode = validateResponseOfExecutedServices(dataVo, futureList, serviceIds);         }         catch (Throwable e) {             throw new Exception(e.getMessage(), e);         }     }      // Check validation response code     if (null != validatedRespCode && !"200".equals(validatedRespCode)) {         MyExecutor.callDeclineFlow(dataVo, validatedRespCode, null);     }  }   /**  * This method iterates through the thread list and checks for exceptions and service responses.  * If service response is not success or if any exception has occurred then exception is thrown  */ public String validateResponseOfExecutedServices(DataVo dataVo, List<Future<Boolean>> futureList, List<String> serviceIds) throws Exception {     String finalResponse = "200", serviceResponse = null;      /*      * future list will be null if single service is executed (no other parallel transactions). The reason is that we do      * not use invokeAll() on single service.      */      if (null != futureList && futureList.size() > 0) {         for (Future<Boolean> future : futureList) {             try {                 future.get();             }             catch (Exception e) {                 throw new Exception(e.getMessage(), e);             }         }     }      // Iterate through serviceIds and check responses.     for (String serviceId : serviceIds) {         serviceResponse = dataVo.getServiceResponse(serviceId);          /*          * if one of following response is found then consider it exception          */         if (null != serviceResponse && "400,401,402,403,404,500,501".contains(serviceResponse)) {             throw new Exception("One of the service has been declined");         }     }      return finalResponse; } 

如果CompletableFuture在这里可以是有益的,那么我如何有效地使用它呢?

future.get()是一个阻止调用。如果我有10个并行执行的服务,则此future.get()将阻止其他服务,即使它们在我们正在等待的当前服务之前执行。如何避免这种阻塞?

我添加了问题说明的更多详细信息,即添加了order列。服务需要遵循定义的顺序。服务A和B的顺序分别为1和2,但是它们仍将并行执行,因为它们在03中都具有link值。我认为@@ Thomas在评论中建议不再需要基于依赖图的方法。

参考方案

很棒的问题。尽管从技术上讲,确实可以纯粹地使用ExecutorServiceFuture来做到这一点,但按照我的说法,更好的方法是使用反应式编程,而不是仅仅依赖于FutureCompletableFutureCompletionService类似。主要原因是它可能很快成为难以阅读的代码。

这是我使用RxJava 2.2.16ExecutorService的方法:

使用ExecutorServicesubmit()动作已经完成了不依赖于其他动作或它们的所有依存关系的执行动作。
要知道操作已完成,请使用RxJava的BehaviorSubject。动作完成后,针对其每个依赖项触发步骤(1)。
完成所有操作后,关闭ExecutorService。为此,请使用另一个BehaviorSubject

抱歉,由于这种新方法,我以自己的方式编写了整个逻辑。但这仍然围绕您给出的主要要求。最好先查看Action模型类和createActions()中的AppRxjava方法。从那里,您应该能够遵循代码。为了模拟一些时间消耗,我使用了著名的Thread.sleep()技术。

public class AppRxJava{     /* To listen to the completion of a task, so that the dependent tasks may be scheduled. */     private Subject<Action> completionSub = io.reactivex.subjects.BehaviorSubject.create();      /* To listen to the completion of all tasks, so that ExecutorService may shut down. */     private Subject<Boolean> allActionCompletedSub = io.reactivex.subjects.BehaviorSubject.create();      private ExecutorService SVC = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();     private List<Action> allActions;      public static void main( String[] args ){         new AppRxJava().start();     }      private void start() {         this.allActions = createActions();         subscribeToActionCompletions();         subscribeToSvcShutdown();          startAllActions( this.allActions );     }      private void subscribeToSvcShutdown(){         /* If all actions have been completed, shut down the ExecutorService. */         this.allActionCompletedSub.subscribe( allScheduled -> {             if( allScheduled ) {                 SVC.shutdown();                 try {                     SVC.awaitTermination( 2, TimeUnit.SECONDS );                 } catch (InterruptedException e) {                     // TODO Auto-generated catch block                     e.printStackTrace();                 }             }         });     }      private void subscribeToActionCompletions(){         this.completionSub.subscribe( complAction -> {             /* Get the actions that are dependent on this recently completed action and "attempt" to start them. */             List<Action> deps = getDeps( complAction, this.allActions );             startAllActions( deps );              /* If all actions have got completed, raise the flag. */             if( allActionsCompleted() ) this.allActionCompletedSub.onNext( true );         });     }      /* Attempts to start all actions that are present in the passed list. */     private void startAllActions( List<Action> actions ){         for( Action action : actions ) {             startAction( action, actions );         }     }      /* Attempts to start an action. Only if it is still pending and all of its dependencies are completed. */     private void startAction( Action a, List<Action> list ){         if( !a.isPending() ) return;         if( !allDepsCompleted( a, allActions ) ) return;          if( a.isPending() ) {             synchronized (a.LOCK ) {                 if( a.isPending() ) {                     a.setStatus( 1 ); //Set to running, so that it is not picked up twice.                      SVC.submit( () -> {                         try {                             a.getAction().call();                         } catch (Exception e) {                             // TODO Auto-generated catch block                             e.printStackTrace();                         }                          a.setStatus( 2 ); //Set to completed. (We may have to synchronize this.)                         this.completionSub.onNext( a );                     } );                 }             }         }     }      private boolean allActionsCompleted(){         for( Action a : this.allActions ) if( !a.isCompleted() ) return false;         return true;     }      private static boolean allDepsCompleted( Action a, List<Action> allActions ){         for( Action dep : allActions ) {             if( a.getDependencies().contains( dep ) && !dep.isCompleted() ) return false;         }          return true;     }      /* Returns the actions that are dependent on Action <code>a</code>. */     private List<Action> getDeps( Action a, List<Action> list ){         List<Action> deps = new ArrayList<>();         for( Action dep : list ) if( dep.getDependencies().contains( a ) ) deps.add( dep );         return deps;     }      /* Creates the action list with respective dependencies. */     private List<Action> createActions(){         List<Action> actions = new ArrayList<>();          Action a = createAction( 5000, "ServiceA", null );         Action b = createAction( 5000, "ServiceB", null );         Action c = createAction( 2000, "ServiceC", a, b );         Action d = createAction( 2000, "ServiceD", c );         Action e = createAction( 2000, "ServiceE", d );          actions.add( a ); actions.add( b ); actions.add( c ); actions.add( d ); actions.add( e );         return actions;     }      private Action createAction( final long sleepMillis, final String name, Action... dependencies ) {         List<Action> deps = null;         if( dependencies != null ) {             deps = new ArrayList<>();             for( Action a : dependencies ) deps.add( a );         }         return Action.of( () -> {             System.out.println( "Service (" + name + ") started" );             try {                 Thread.sleep( sleepMillis );             } catch (InterruptedException e) {                 // TODO Auto-generated catch block                 e.printStackTrace();             }              System.out.println( "Service (" + name + ") completed" );             return true;         }, name, deps );     }   } 

还有动作模型类。这表示一个动作及其依赖的动作列表。 (与您的原始表示形式略有不同。但是,我认为,无论哪种方式都可以,如果您对此进行适当的处​​理)。

public class Action{     Callable<Boolean> action;     String name;     List<Action> dependencies = new ArrayList<>();     AtomicInteger status = new AtomicInteger( 0 ); //0 = Pending, 1 = Scheduled, 2 = Completed     public static final Object LOCK = new Object();      private Action(Callable<Boolean> action, String name, List<Action> dependencies) {         super();         this.action = action;         this.name = name;         if( dependencies != null ) this.dependencies = dependencies;     }      public static Action of( Callable<Boolean> action, String name, List<Action> dependencies ){         return new Action( action, name, dependencies );     }      public Callable<Boolean> getAction(){         return action;     }      public String getName(){         return name;     }      public List<Action> getDependencies(){         return dependencies;     }      public boolean isCompleted(){         return this.status.get() == 2;     }      public boolean isPending(){         return this.status.get() == 0;     }      public boolean isScheduled(){         return this.status.get() == 1;     }      public void setStatus( int status ){         this.status.getAndSet( status );     }      @Override     public int hashCode(){         final int prime = 31;         int result = 1;         result = prime * result + ((name == null) ? 0 : name.hashCode());         return result;     }      @Override     public boolean equals( Object obj ){         if (this == obj) return true;         if (obj == null) return false;         if (getClass() != obj.getClass()) return false;         Action other = (Action) obj;         if (name == null) {             if (other.name != null)                 return false;         } else if (!name.equalsIgnoreCase( other.name )) return false;         return true;     }  } 

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